SOME OF MY WORK




A study of the polarization of the Cherenkov Radiation in Extensive Air Showers of Energy around 1 TeV.


Work developed for the MSC course of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

How to make a reference to this work: I. de la Calle et al. 1999, FAMN 3/99, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.


Portada.ps (46 Kb.)
Contents.ps (237 Kb.)
Introduction ( Introduction.ps (31 Kb.))
Physical Basis ( Chapter1.ps (11.800 Kb.))
Cherenkov Radiation
Extensive Air Showers
Cherenkov Radiation in EAS
The Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique ( Chapter2.ps (11.852 Kb.))
Cherenkov Telescopes
Gamma/hadron Separation Technique
Image Parameters
Image Moment Estimation
Image Parameters in the context of the Gamma/hadron Separation Method
On the Use of Polarization in IACTs ( Chapter3.ps (799 Kb.))
Basic Physical Ideas
Implications
Operational Setup ( Chapter4.ps (772 Kb.))
Introduction
Extensive Air Showers Simulation
CORSIKA Physics
Cherenkov Radiation in CORSIKA
CORSIKA parameters and applied modifications
Detector Simulation
Ray Tracing
Light of the Night Sky
Image Analysis
Monte Carlo Data Base
Results ( Chapter5.ps (2.634 Kb.))
General Characteristics
Energy Threshold
Image Parameters
Conclucions ( Chapter6.ps (242 Kb.))
Bibliography ( Bibliography.ps (241 Kb.))
List of Figures ( Figures.ps (265 Kb.))
List of Tables ( Tables.ps (236 Kb.))

Latest Version: 29 September 1999

Complete Document (compressed file): tesina.ps.gz (5.421 Kb.)
( To uncompress the file once you unload it, type: gunzip tesina.ps.gz )




Publications



A study of the polarization of the Cherenkov Radiation in Extensive Air Showers of Energy around 1 TeV.

Authors: J.L.Contreras, I. de la Calle, J.Cortina

Dpto. de Física Atómica de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid. Spain.

The polarization of the emitted Cherenkov Light is one of the less studied features of Extensive Air Showers (EAS), even though it is known to carry important information on topics such as gamma-hadron separation. By means of an Air Shower Monte Carlo simulation we have studied some of the characteristics of the net polarization of Cherenkov Light, for incident particles of energy around 1 TeV. An experimental setup that could be used on Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, to take advantage of the information contained in the Cherenkov Light polarization, is presented and discussed.


Presented as a Poster in the 16th European Cosmic Ray Simposium in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, July 20-24, 1998.


Postscript file: Polarization.ps (384 Kb.)



A study of the effect of polarizing filters in Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes

Authors: I. de la Calle, J.L.Contreras, V.Fonseca

Dpto. de Física Atómica de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid. Spain.

In this contribution we study the net polarization of the Cherenkov Light emitted in Extensive Air Showers of energy around 1 TeV, by means of an Air Shower Monte Carlo simulation. The study investigates the modification of the Hillas image parameters and telescope performance due to a particular arrangement of polarizing filters in front of the camera of a Cherenkov Telescope.


Presented as a Poster in the TeV Workshop in Snowbird, Utah 1999.


Postscript file with the poster: poster.ps (825 Kb.)


Postscript file with the proceedings: proceed.ps (237 Kb.)


A possible use for polarizers in Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.

Authors: I. de la Calle, J.L.Contreras, J. Cortina, V.Fonseca

University of Leeds, Department of Physics and Astronomy, LS2 9JT Leeds, UK
Dpto. de Física Atómica de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid. Spain.

Cherenkov radiation produced in Extensive Air Showers shows a net polarization. This article discusses its properties and physical origin, and proposes an arrangement of polarizers potentially useful for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.


Astorparticle Physics, Vol/Issue 17/2, pp.133-149, 2002.

(astro-ph/0107271)




Other Related C-Polarization References



Polarization Properties of Atmospheric Cerenkov Pulses

Authors: A.K.Tickoo, M.Kothari, H.C.Goyal, V.K.Dhar, R.Koul, S.K.Kaul, R.C.Rannot, R.K.Kaul, A.Haungs, H.Rebel and C.L.Bhat

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Trombay, Mumbai-400085, India
Ref: 26th International Cosmic Ray Conference ; Salt Lake City, Utah 1999; August 17-25, 1999 (OG 4.3.19)



Simulation and experimental studies of polarization properties of atmospheric Cerenkov pulses

Authors: Bhat, C. L.; Rannot, R. C.; Mahapatra, D. K.; Gandhi, V. N.; Tickoo, A. K.; Kaul, R.; Kaul, S. K.; Kaul, S. R. Goyal, H. C.; Bhatt, N.

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Trombay, Mumbai-400085, India
Ref: Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India, vol. 27, p.343.



My Current Work



Currently I am working at the Universtity of Leeds in the Department of physics and Astronomy inside the Whipple Group . I joint the gruop in October 1999.

At the moment I am working in the development of the analog transport of a signal throught a fiber optic system and its application to the Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes.


Design and performance of analog fiber optic links used on the Whipple 10 metre air Cherenkov telescope.

Authors:I. H. Bond, S. M. Bradbury, I. de la Calle, P. A. Ogden, H. J. Rose and T. C. Weekes

University of Leeds, Department of Physics and Astronomy, LS2 9JT Leeds, UK
Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, P.O. Box 97, Amado, AZ 85645-0097, USA

The use of fiber optics instead of coaxial cable for signal transmission can reduce pulse dispersion and attenuation and so will allow a shorter ADC gate to be used. Results indicate that the night sky background component could be reduced by ~25 %. A prototype system of links has been installed on the Whipple 10 m air Cherenkov telescope and the performance has been assessed over one year of operation. The bandwidth is 150 MHz and the dynamic range of the output is from 2 mV to 1 mV. The average gain of the 120 channels is 4.1 and is stable to within a few percent over a typical 3 week observation period. The baseline noise level is 0.5 mV rms but this can increase to 6 mV amplituede at certain resonance points in the value of the laser bias current. The deviation from true linearity is typically less than 7% .


To be presented at the 2001 ICRC Hamburg, Germany.


Search for TeV Gamma Ray emission from 4C39.12 with the Whipple 10 metre Cherenkov Telescope

Authors:I. de la Calle and S. M. Bradbury for the VERITAS collaboration.

University of Leeds, Department of Physics and Astronomy, LS2 9JT Leeds, UK

Among others, the Whipple telescope has been used over the past decade in the search for VHE emission from BL Lacertae objects applying different target selection criteria. Here we report on a new candidate, 4C39.12, a radio selected source in 408 the MHz B2 survey which includes Mrk421 and Mrk501. Given its low redshift (z=0.02), the close similarities to Mrk421 and Mrk501 and the recent identification of a relativistic jet at a small angle with respect to the line of sight (0 < 45 deg) 4C39.12 is a fair candidate for VHE emission. This object has not been catalogued by EGRET but it is detected by ROSAT at a level consistent with non-thermal emission from the core and is classified as an X-ray selected BL Lac in some references. Over a period of 5 months the Whipple Telescope has been monitoring the object for evidence of emission above 300 GeV. A 99.99 % confidence upper limit to the flux is derived from these observations.


To be presented at the 2001 ICRC Hamburg, Germany.







Group Publications



HEGRA

The time averaged TeV energy spectrum of Mkn 501 of the extraordinary 1997 outburst as measured with the stereoscopic Cherenkov telescope system of HEGRA.

F.A. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Heb, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, J. Kettler, C. Kohler, A. Konopelko, H. Kornmeyer, M. Kestel, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H.J. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, W. Wittek

Ref:1999A&A...349...11A.


Correlated intense X-Ray and TeV activity of Mkn 501 in 1998 june.

F.A. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle , J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Heb, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, J. Kettler, C. Kohler, A. Konopelko, H. Kornmeyer, M. Kestel, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H.J. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, W. Wittek

Ref:2000ApJ...538..127S.

The temporal characteristics of the TeV -emission from Mkn 501 in 1997. II. Results from HEGRA CT1 and CT2.

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J. Gebauer, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, M. Kestel, O. Kirstein, C. Kohler, H. Kornmayer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, H. Wirth, W. Wittek

Ref:1999A&A...349...29A.

Energy Spectrum and Chemical Composition of Cosmic Rays between 0.3 and 10 PeV determined from the Cherenkov-Light and Charged-Particle distribution in Air Showers.

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, F.Arqueros, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J. Gebauer, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, M. Kestel, O. Kirstein, C. Kohler, H. Kornmayer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, H. Wirth, W. Wittek

Ref:2000A&A...359..682H.

Observations of Mkn 421 during 1997 and 1998 in the energy range above 500 GeV with HEGRA stereoscopic Cherenkov telescope system

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J. Gebauer, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, M. Kestel, O. Kirstein, C. Kohler, H. Kornmayer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, H. Wirth, W. Wittek

Ref:1999A&A...350..757A.

Constrains on BL Lac objects by the HEGRA-system of Cherenkov telescopes.

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J. Gebauer, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, M. Kestel, O. Kirstein, C. Kohler, H. Kornmayer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, H. Wirth, W. Wittek

Ref:A&A (?)

HEGRA search for TeV emission from BL Lac objects.

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Heb, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, J. Kettler, C. Kohler, A. Konopelko, H. Kornmayer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, W. Wittek

Ref:2000A&A...353..847A

The Energy of TeV Gamma-Rays from the Crab Nebula as measured by the HEGRA system of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes.

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J. Gebauer, J.C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, M. Kestel, O. Kirstein, C. Kohler, H. Kornmayer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, W. Wittek

Ref:2000ApJ...539..317A

An experimental limit on the size of the emission region for VHE gamma rays in the Crab Nebula.

F. Aharonian, A.G. Akhperjanian, J.A. Barrio, K. Bernlohr, H. Bojahr, I. Calle, J.L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J.C. Gonzalez, N. Gotting, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, J. Kettle, C. Kohler, A. Konpelko, H. Kornmayer, M. Kestel, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, O. Mang, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, M. Schilling, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, M. Tluczykont, H. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. Wiedner, M. Willmer, W. Wittek

Ref: A&A (?)

Cosmic Ray Proton Spectrum determined with the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Technique.

F. Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, J. A. Barrio, A. S. Belgarian, K. Bernlohr, J. J. G. Beteta, H. Bojahr, S. Bradbury, I. Calle, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, A. Daum, T. Deckers, S. Denninghoff, V. Fonseca, J. C. Gonzalez, G. Heinzelmann, M. Hemberger, G. Hermann, M. Hess, A. Heusler, W. Hofmann, H. Hohl, I. Holl, D. Horns, A. Ibarra, R. Kankanyan, M. Kestel, O. Kirstein, C. Kohler, A. Konopelko, H. Kornmeyer, D. Kranich, H. Krawczynski, H. Lampeitl, A. Lindner, E. Lorenz, N. Magnussen, H. Meyer, R. Mirzoyan, A. Moralejo, L. Padilla, M. Panter, D. Petry, R. Plaga, A. Plyasheshnikov, J. Prahl, C. Prosch, G. Puhlhofer, G. Rauterberg, C. Renault, W. Rhode, A. Rohring, V. Sahakian, M. Samorski, D. Schmele, F. Schroder, W. Stamm, H. J. Volk, B. Wiebel-Sooth, C. A. Wiedner, M. Willmer, and H. Wirth

Ref: Phys. Rev. D 59, 092003 (1999)

WHIPPLE

Cutoff in the TeV Energy Spectrum of Markarian 421 During Strong Flares in 2001

F. Krennrich, H.M. Badran, I.H. Bond, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, D.A. Carter-Lewis, M. Catanese, W. Cui, S. Dunlea, D. Das, I. de la Calle Perez, D.J. Fegan, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, J.A. Gaidos, K. Gibbs, G.H. Gillanders, T.A. Hall, A.M. Hillas, J. Holder, D. Horan, M. Jordan, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, K. Kosack, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, B. McKernan, P. Moriarty, D. Müller, R. Ong, R. Pallassini, D. Petry, J. Quinn, N.W. Reay, P.T. Reynolds, H.J. Rose, G.H. Sembroski, R. Sidwell, N. Stanton, S.P. Swordy, V.V. Vassiliev, S.P. Wakely, T.C. Weekes

Ref: Accepted in ApJL (2001)


Detection of the BL Lac Object 1H1426+428 at TeV Gamma Ray Energies.

D. Horan, H.M. Badran, I.H. Bond, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, D.A. Carter-Lewis, M. Catanese, W. Cui, S. Dunlea, D. Das, I. de la Calle Perez, D.J. Fegan, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, J.A. Gaidos, K. Gibbs, G.H. Gillanders, T.A. Hall, A.M. Hillas, J. Holder, D. Horan, M. Jordan, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, K. Kosack, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, B. McKernan, P. Moriarty, D. M|ller, R. Ong, R. Pallassini, D. Petry, J. Quinn, N.W. Reay, P.T. Reynolds, H.J. Rose, G.H. Sembroski, R. Sidwell, N. Stanton, S.P. Swordy, V.V. Vassiliev, S.P. Wakely, T.C. Weekes

Ref: Accepted in ApJ (2002)



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